Acupuncture regulates blood pressure by exploiting a complex system known as the neuroendocrine system, which is composed of the endocrine system (primarily the hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid / adrenals), and the intricate working relationship it has with the nervous system. The endocrine system regulates hormones and metabolism. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is divided into two arms, a sympathetic branch (fight or flight), which plays a role in helping regulate the vascular tone and blood volume of the heart; and a parasympathetic branch (rest and digest), that regulates body processes like blood pressure and breathing.
The central nervous system (CNS) is a two – way communication network consisting of the brain and spinal cord, which processes all the information from the body and external stimuli. Information is collected by the nervous system, relayed through the spinal cord to the brain, and then the brain sends signals to the body through the same mechanism.